Out of the thousands of Ambassador-led initiatives, One Young World chooses 50 projects for evaluation each year. They are selected to represent all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 8 geographic regions – Europe, Asia, MENA, Africa, North America, Caribbean, Latin America and Oceania.
One Young World also monitors the action of Ambassadors working in the private sector, as young entrepreneurs work to create impact in sustainability-focused startups and young professionals work to embed social purpose in their workplaces and companies' actions.
The final selection of 17 Ambassadors featured in Annual Impact Reports are the 'Ones to Watch', outstanding initiatives tackling each Sustainable Development Goal predicted to create significant social impact in the coming years.
For every $1 of value invested, One Young World Ambassadors deliver $16 of social value, based on a Social Return on Investment analysis of 50 Ambassador-led initiatives addressing the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in 2020.
SDG Impact Tracker
Interested in supporting impactful initiatives led by young leaders? Search this database of over 200 projects from the One Young World Community to find out more.
Search for projects by the following case study categories:
- Ambassador-led Initiatives: qualitative and quantitative analysis of the social impact of organisations or projects which are led by young leaders in the Community.
- Business for Social Good: written case studies for initiatives ran by Partner organisations, led by young professional Ambassadors, or entrepreneurs in the Community.
- Ones to Watch: brief summaries of some of the most exciting new initiatives working to achieve a particular Sustainable Development Goal.
- Covid Young Leaders Fund: detailed case studies of a selection of grant recipients from One Young World's 2020 funding opportunity for projects tackling the Covid-19 pandemic.
- Lead2030: detailed case studies of the Lead2030 award winners and how their projects have generated impact from participating in the programme.
To explore projects featured in the 2020 Annual Impact Report set the 'year' filter to 2020.
Salvando Latidos - Mexico
Carlos Madrigal Iberri
Cardiovascular diseases remain the primary cause of death globally, making up 31% of all recorded fatalities per year (1). This shocking statistic highlights the vital importance of the work of Dr Carlos and Salvando Latidos AC.
The organisation was founded in 2018 founded by a group of health professionals who, concerned about public health problems coupled with the social context of Mexico, set out to create an altruistic, non-profit platform to prevent, diagnose, care and rehabilitate people at-risk or suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Dr Carlos joined the organisation in November 2018 as General Director.
The initial focus of Salvando Latidos was to provide basic medical training, most notably CPR training, to make people better aware of the danger of heart conditions and better equipped to intervene in an emergency. However, with Carlos' support, the organisation scaled its fundraising capabilities to expand its operations and the scale of its impact. Salvandos is now one of the most recognised Cardiovascular NGOs in Mexico. An estimated 6,300 people have been trained to perform potentially life-saving CPR and first aid. An additional 188 patients have detected heart conditions from the early diagnosis campaign. Through partnerships with physicians, the organisation has ensured 269 patients have received consultancy, diagnosis tests and essential surgeries. Patients are charged according to a socioeconomic evaluation, to ensure that treatment is affordable to all who need it, even free if needed.
As with so many organisations in 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic interrupted Salvando Latidos' activities. Between March and June, Carlos partnered with fellow OYW Ambassador Adan Ramirez to provide vital PPE to 5,000 underresourced physicians. In August, adapted operations recommenced in the form of general medical education programmes, through which 26,136 people have been educated.
Streetwise Transformers - Kenya
Margaret Osolo Odhiambo
There is a troubling trend in many Sub-Saharan countries that the number of street-children is on the rise as a result of increasing poverty, family instabilities and social disintegration, and in Nairobi, this is a particularly prevalent issue with estimates of over 60,000 children taking to living and working on the streets (1). Margaret is the Health Lead at Streetwise Transformers, a humanitarian community-based organisation that is committed to restoring human dignity for marginalised and vulnerable populations of homeless children, young adults, and families. The target demographics primarily live and work on the streets and street-connected environments in Nairobi.
The organisation has a keen focus on improving their health, well-being and living standards. It does so in different areas including Education and Skills Development, Health programing, Sport and Talent development, Alternative Economic Livelihoods as well as Advocacy and lobbying for basic human rights. These activities are carried out by a network of qualified volunteers and staff members who shape and execute these programmes. Streetwise Transformers has facilitated Outreach Programs through tracing, rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration of over 500 children and youth out of the streets.
In the area of health, for which Margaret leads the organisation's programmes, Streetwise Transformers has managed to reach over 2,749 children, young adults, women, people living with disabilities and families living and working in the streets and street-connected environments. The health programming focuses on health literacy, safe access to health and hygiene products as well as friendly healthcare services for the marginalized communities in the community and through the distribution of dignity packs, referrals, access to safe spaces, among others. The support programmes range from the promotion of menstrual, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, health literacy, and disease prevention. They also promote the need for clean water, hygiene and sanitation. Activities address drug and substance abuse and management of non-communicable diseases.
Farmz2U - Nigeria
Aisha founded Farmz2U with the aim of helping farmers farm better with tailored agricultural expertise and access to market. Created following a personal health experience, Aisha saw the need to address unsustainable practices in food production not limited to excessive use of chemicals in food production and increasing levels of food waste.
Despite Sub Saharan Africa having a significant portion of the world's fertile land, smallholder farmers in the region (which make up 80% of all farmers) rarely achieve profitability and commercial scale. With Africa’s population doubling by 2050 (1), the continent must expand its agricultural production capacity to ensure global food sustainability. The Sub-Saharan African region has the necessary resources required to grow its agricultural operations including fertile and unused land, a growing youth population and favourable government policies. Nonetheless, the market is disconnected and farmers have poor access to capital, quality-assured inputs and technical expertise to produce optimally. Furthermore, they have little influence on the value chain.
Farmz2U uses technology to support farmers with agricultural advisory and decision support services. Furthermore, it increases smallholder farmers’ access to market services including finance, input suppliers and produces buyers through API integrations (which are doorways to other service providers). For instance, data sharing with banks (within regulatory constraints) reduces the default risk of loans to farmers.
Farmz2U’s solution supports farming operations across production in the agricultural value chain while increasing farmers' connectivity with service providers, and it was recognised as a promising practice by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations in 2020. Since launching in 2019, Farmz2U has worked towards the primary objective of increasing agricultural productivity and income for smallholder farmers.
Khuthaza Foundation NPC
Khuthaza Foundation NPC - South Africa
Bianca Wannenburg, Sipho Mabusela
South Africa is a country rife with inequality, and some of the most extreme inequality manifests in the form of food insecurity whereby an estimated 6.5 million people suffer from hunger (1). The pandemic has exacerbated the issue significantly in 2020, as informal workers lost their source of income and poverty increased rapidly.
Bianca and Sipho co-founded and run Khuthaza Foundation, a registered non-profit in South Africa. Its purpose is to fight food insecurity, provide waste management education and promote environmental sustainability for a better world. The organisation sees itself as the custodian of responsible production and consumption with the goal of reducing future economic, environmental and social costs, strengthening economic competitiveness and reducing poverty.
The three main avenues of impact are food gardens, waste management, and tree planting. Khuthaza designs and builds food gardens in corporate parks, schools and previously and currently disadvantaged communities, to achieve zero hunger and healthier communities. Since 2019, it has managed to carer for 1,950 adults and children. Khuthaza also organises community cleanups, teaching communities how to upcycle using eco-bricks to build seedbeds, park benches, and other structures, activities which have contributed to the collection of over 14 tonnes of plastic waste. Currently, the eco-bricks are used to build raised beds for community food gardens. The ultimate goal is to construct affordable housing using eco-bricks.
Finally, the team sources trees and succulents, organising planting events to help with CO2 sequestration and urban cooling in Johannesburg. These activities planting more than 2,200 trees has contributed to the removal of an estimated 104,000kg of carbon from the atmosphere.
Jasberry - Thailand
Thailand is the world's second-largest exporter of rice and yet a large proportion of rice farmers live in poverty, and so in 2011, the government reacted with a controversial subsidy programme (1). MBA students Palmmy and her co-founder, Neil, conceived their own sustainable, scalable and irreversible solution to the challenge.
Jasberry (previously Siam Organic) is a social enterprise that solves the problem of farmer poverty through innovative organic products with global appeal. This began with the eponymous variety, jasberry rice, discovered by researchers which not only brings higher yields and lower costs for the farmers but also has nutritional benefits for consumers. The organisation connects with farmers, individuals and cooperatives, to train them on how to grow the crop as well as supplying them with high-quality non-GMO rice seeds. They work with the farmers to modernise their agricultural methods and encourage them to share knowledge and best practice. In addition to the transition of crop and methods, Jasberry provides micro-financing through a partnership with Kiva. Jasberry also runs an IT programme to help farmers to integrate technology into their methods.
Farmers are required to keep at least 25% of their harvests for household consumption regardless of their yield to ensure food security. The rest, Jasberry purchases directly. As part of processing the rice, the farmer's cooperative employs 50 women in the packaging facility to ensure that the local community benefits at all stages of production. Beginning with just 25 farmers in the first year, the organisation now works with 2,500 farmers, increasing their average daily salary from $0.40 to about $5.80 per day.
Rhythym of Life
Rhythym of Life - Uganda
There are approximately 1.6 million Ugandan's living with HIV (1), a demographic that suffers significantly from marginalisation and socioeconomic disadvantages. The rate of infection rises drastically for female sex workers (FSW). In Kampala, it is estimated that one in three FSWs are HIV-positive (2). Harriet founded Rhythm Of Life in 2013 to support HIV-positive FSWs and their families. She has been challenged to find a solution for one community challenge whilst at university, which was when she conceived the idea to break the cycle of mother-daughter prostitution.
The project operates via three streams. Through the first, it seeks to equip the women and girls with new skills by full-sponsoring their education at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. The second is health outreaches, which connect the HI-positive women and girls with regular healthcare access. Doctors and counsellors visit them, or they are connected to local health clinics and hospitals. The organisation has lobbied to ensure that health centres respect the referral cards of FSWs, which has often been an issue with the women receiving healthcare in the past. The organisation also teaches the women new vocational skills to help support them financially, or even to transfer out of the industry,
Through the Rhythmic Voices advocacy campaign, girls have become ambassadors against the stigmatisation of HIV positive nationals all over the country and in the entire world. Women and girls supported by the organisation were hit hard by the pandemic. FSW ""are enduring economic losses, increased risk of violence, and reduced access to HIV prevention and treatment"" (3), and so Harriet has ensured that Rhythm of Life continues to support them with food and shelter. This aspect of the programme has been so successful it will be continued beyond the pandemic.
Soup N Stew
Soup N Stew - Nigeria
Statistics supporting claims that women are less likely to be the head of households in poverty, leading to the conclusion that women are therefore better off, does not truly reflect the realities of poor women (1). This is not reflected on the ground, as it is estimated that twice as many women as men live below the poverty line (2).
Zainab established Soup N Stew, initially as an affordable and hygienic supermarket for people who had previously been reliant on poor, open markets. After being operational for a year, the organisation began to run grocery drives for poor women, especially poor widows, in December 2018. These relief packages are supplied on a monthly basis to women whose households had lost their primary 'breadwinner'. Nigeria’s food inflation has risen by 110.5% in 5 years, between September 2015 and September 2020 (3). Ensuring food security is essential for the women and their families, as it is increasingly less affordable for those living in poverty.
The latest development for Soup N Stew was to launch a microloan programme, to empower the women who had lost their jobs in the informal economy with financial capital. All the recipients go through a personal assessment process to ensure they have a bank account, and the necessary business understanding to be a success. The loan is flexible and there is no punishment for failed repayment. This capital helps women to sustainably bring themselves out of poverty, by supporting their existing entrepreneurial skills. The organisation has also provided vocational skills training to empower women further to secure their financial independence.
Moving forward, Soup N Stew is closing the previously run store to focus exclusively on emergency grocery deliveries, microloans and business grants for an increasing network of small-scale businesswomen. The nutritional programme is reaching almost 10 households per month, and the microgrants have supported 8 small enterprises with a 100% repayment rate.
NEXT - United Kingdom
Alena Schieber, Abdul Balogun
Business for Social Good
Zurich Insurance’s delegation for the One Young World Summit founded NEXT in July 2019. ahead of participating in the upcoming London Summit. NEXT is a global movement within Zurich advocating for the next generation to have a stronger voice in shaping the company’s legacy.
It has three primary focuses. One strand is advocacy, whereby the group is driving initiatives such as increasing youth representation at leadership team meetings and developing a cross-generational mentoring programme in order to promote dialogue that facilitates stronger outcomes for the business.
The second is connection, both internally and externally. Internally, the group is looking to build country hubs as a space where younger employees can share their ideas and experiences, in order to drive positive changes through local initiatives. Externally, NEXT is collaborating with companies across different industries that share similar values to Zurich. The NEXT team is one of the founding partners of One Young World’s NextGen Working Group, which aims to enable NextGen to create purpose-driven internal networks within their corporations. The ultimate goal is to scale impact beyond Zurich via knowledge-sharing and cross-corporate action.
The third aim of NEXT is to drive social innovation, by investing in the next-generation of socially responsible leaders inside and outside of Zurich. The 12 NEXT founders attended the One Young World Summit in London alongside 12 social entrepreneurs which fostered an exchange of ideas and expertise between them. NEXT is passionate about doing its part to achieve the UN SDGs, and has partnered with the Zurich Foundation, the private foundation funded by Zurich Insurance Group, to work closely with social entrepreneurs that can drive powerful initiatives in their local communities.
What began as a group of 12, has grown to a community of 1,000+. While still relatively nascent, Abdul and his fellow founders have created a community of driven and socially-conscious young leaders within the organisation aiming to secure a bright future ahead.
Every Infant Matters
Every Infant Matters - India
Covid Young Leaders Fund
While a resident in pediatrics, Radhika was horrified by infant mortality rates. In India, with an infant mortality of approximately 36.6 per 1,000 births, around 70% of fatalities are avoidable (1). She encountered a young child, suffering irreversible blindness which could have been prevented by two drops of Vitamin A. From this inspiration, Radhika founded Every Infant Matters to give all children in India a healthy start to life. In 2017 Radhika reached out to Vitamin Angels, an NGO in the USA, who agreed to provide her organisation with medical supplies free-of-charge. Every Infant Matters leveraged Radhika’s contacts in the healthcare industry in India to build a network of frontline healthcare providers, and supplies them with Vitamin A so they can provide preventative treatment to protect the eyesight of infants. Every Infant Matters has since expanded to 18 partners in total.
At the One Young World Summit in 2018, she established partnerships with other attendees of the event. One such collaboration which has expanded her project is with Ekpenyong Effiok, from Startup Grind. Together, they have expanded her work to Nigeria, where there is an even higher infant mortality rate of approximately 119.9 per 1,000 births. Through partnerships with frontline healthcare providers, Every Infant Matters has facilitated treatment of 20,000 children to prevent blindness and around 15,000 for worms. To supplement this work, they have counselled approximately 32,000 families on better life-style choices to reduce non-communicable diseases.
Radhika is launching more international partnerships, notably in Kenya with Ekpenyong in August 2020, and Cameroon and Tanzania later in the year. Additionally, having met Sister Rose Pate, she launched a partnership in February 2020 providing 1,500 pregnant, disadvantaged women in North-East India. Every Infant Matters also supported young, dedicated doctors in providing free medical care in part of India impacted by the riots in Delhi at the beginning of 2020.
EIM has shifted its focus to tackle the virus and its consequences by distributing masks and hand sanitiser to vulnerable communities in Delhi and at-risk demographics in remote regions around the world. It has sourced PPE for under-resourced health workers providing essential groceries to the recently-unemployed.
The team has used the funding to support three distinct initiatives. In India, EIM distributed PPE to health workers, sanitiser to homeless individuals, and groceries to unemployed migrant workers. In Kenya and Nigeria, they distributed sanitary napkins, face masks and soap.
- 1,000 masks and 1,000 bottles of sanitiser, and 1,200 bars of soap distributed
- 250 vulnerable families received grocery relief packs
- 1,300 sanitary napkins distributed in Kenya
Upcycle Africa - Uganda
Johnmary was 19 when his Grandma’s home collapsed due to flooding caused by plastic pollution, killing her in the process. This inspired him to find a solution to the causes of this personal tragedy. Having acquired experience in construction and explored solutions to plastic waste pollution through his participation in the Social Innovation Academy, he founded Upcycle Africa.
Formally established in December 2015, the organisation has four key processes which act as the foundation for the organisation’s work. One primary aspect is sensitising local communities on dangers of plastic waste and practical solutions. Since foundation, they have educated an estimated 20,800 students in 52 different schools.
The second is a waste pickers programme which recovers plastic waste to ensure a safe and clean environment. The team has recovered over 3,000,000 plastic bottles.
The third is waste compaction, whereby after categorisation, plastic is used in construction of Upcycle’s buildings or sold to recycling companies. As a result, over 100 tonnes of plastic has been sustainably repurposed.
The final aspect of their work is the construction of affordable housing. The organisation empowers marginalised communities through training them in sustainable construction. The organisation has built 117 houses for families including 11 from marginalised communities. In total, over two million people have been sensitised around Upcycle Africa’s slogan “waste is not waste until it’s wasted”.
In 2020, Johnmary aims to spread the range of Upcycle Africa’s impact to two more countries in East Africa.
Anti-human trafficking awareness and empowerment of survivors in the Philippines
Anti-human trafficking awareness and empowerment of survivors in the Philippines - Philippines
Emmanuele Marie Parra
Business for Social Good
Emmanuele Marie has worked with Thomson Reuters since 2015 and won the Thomson Reuters Foundation Ambassador Challenge in 2016, through which she was invited to attend the Trust Women Conference in London. This process and event raised Emmanuele’s awareness of the issue of human trafficking, and established her relationship with Voice of the Free, an NGO that rescue survivors in the Philippines.
She used her role as the Thomson Reuters Global Volunteer Network Manila co-lead to continue her advocacy against human trafficking and to support Voice of the Free. She organized an Anti-Slavery Forum, roadshows, and leveraged social media for awareness campaigns. She also led her colleagues to organise numerous volunteer activities as part of the healing process of the survivors. Their most favourite activity was the Muay Thai self-defense workshop which she organised in partnership with the Thomson Reuters Muay Thai Club. This activity is a way for the survivors to regain their self-confidence, protect themselves when they’re out of the shelter and empower them so that they can achieve their dreams and goals.
By mobilising Thomson Reuters employees in Manila to use their two days of paid volunteer leaves and their volunteer programmes through which the company matches their donations, Emmanuele and GVN Manila have logged over 3,833 volunteer hours and fundraised over 2,000,000 pesos for Voice of the Free. This support has helped Voice of the Free to build a ‘Healing Farm’ for around 300 survivors of human trafficking and modern slavery.
Emmanuele Marie has been rightfully recognised for her advocacy and leadership and was rewarded by the Global Institute for Youth Development with a 2019 Young SDG Champion Award.
Armenian Progressive Youth
Armenian Progressive Youth - Armenia
What began as a student initiative in 2007, and was officially registered in 2009, has developed into one of the leading youth organisations in Eastern Europe. Grigor co-founded the organisation, and currently sits as Executive Director of Armenian Progressive Youth (APY). It has run a variety of projects in the fields of non-formal education, volunteerism, gender equality, women rights, environmental protection, youth participation and active citizenship, human rights protection and youth work.
In 2019, one of the main projects APY ran was the “Employment & Entrepreneurship Shuttle” project in the framework of GIZ-led “Economic and Social Participation of Vulnerable Displaced Persons and Local Populations in the South Caucasus” programme, also known as EPIC. This was a five month, bi-weekly mentorship and training programme to get young people, specifically displaced persons and refugees, into employment and foster their entrepreneurship. Of the 80 participants, an estimated 27 found jobs, while 16 have established and expanded their own businesses. The 16 entrepreneurs who emerged from the initiative received 300 to 1,000 EUR grants.
Another core programme is “Wind of Change: Empowering Student Activism” project. This initiative recruited 50 students in universities across Armenia and gave them 500-1000 EUR micro grants to launch campaigns in order to transform the higher education system.
Together, they reached around 5,000 students. Another initiative of APY is the “Armenia-Azerbaijan Youth Dialogue” program, which takes 10 young people from each country and convenes them in a neutral nation where they discuss hate narratives and online abuse. After a second meeting, the participants form activist groups to work in both countries and unite young people around positive messages.
During the last year, APY has also trained 500 youth workers, supported 20 local youth initiatives and start-ups, hosted 500 young people from all around the globe, facilitated 400 young Armenians to study and work abroad and provided around 400 hours of capacity building training activities to young people.
This is only a snapshot of Grigor’s organisation, which has facilitated the education and empowerment of over 40,000 young people with the support of 300 international partners. He also has worked with fellow One Young World Ambassadors on initiatives, including TeachSurfing with Miganoush Magarian and Youth to Youth Initiative with Saida Ibrahimava.
Agents of Change
Agents of Change - Zambia
Brighton developed his first radio show aged just 14 in Kitwe, in the Copperbelt province. Amidst visible consequences of pollution from the mining industry, Brighton identified the medium of radio as the most suitable platform to educate people across Zambia about the negative impacts and potential solutions to climate change; it does not exclude the substantial illiterate population, the technology is cheap and it can reach people in their native dialect.
The programme swiftly became the most listened to show in the province, as it reached an estimated 3,000,000 people. The show communicated the science of climate change with an intimate but educational style, speaking informally with experts in the field. From this, Brighton became a UNICEF climate ambassador.
Brighton wanted to promote other young leaders and “Agents of Change” became a formal organisation in 2015. It provides vocational training to young, budding broadcasters and connects them with opportunities to experience work in the industry. He has also run workshops globally, in countries such as Hong Kong and the UK.
However, Brighton’s focus remains in Africa, where he has trained over 400 young Zambians, providing experience in six different radio stations, broadcasting in five languages. Each participant received experience writing, producing and presenting to cover all aspects of radio production, and produce a portfolio to support their future career.
Participants in the course not only receive work experience and improved employability, but 70% demonstrate exceptional leadership skills outside of the programme in their schools. Brighton prides himself on the education being holistic as well as specific to the vocation.
Brighton has connected with a global network of young leaders since attending the One Young World Summit in 2018, and since studying at Colombia University is pursuing a new initiative providing a sustainable transport and logistics solution in Zambia with a fellow One Young World Ambassador.
Instituto Verdeluz - Brazil
Beatriz Azevêdo de Araújo
Beatriz is the Founder and President of Instituto Verdeluz, a non-profit which engages young Brazilians with conservation initiatives, including sea turtle conservation, waste management and conservation units. Brazil has a vast coastline, spanning over 7,000 km, and supporting diverse ecosystems (1).
Instituto Verdeluz engages with young people in Fortaleza to protect and restore the biodiversity on which nature relies. One of the organisation’s core initiatives is the protection and monitoring of endangered sea turtles, animals which are essential to maintaining a healthy marine ecosystem. Turtles maintain healthy seagrass beds and coral, provide a habitat for other marine life, and facilitate nutrient cycling from water to land, among other essential services (2).
Since 2015, the organisation has registered 75 nests and 231 stranded turtles, and rescued 16. In 2018 and 2019, the programme educated 4,732 young Brazilians on the environment, inspiring them to be advocates and activists themselves. Instituto Verdeluz also engaged the students in beach cleanups, which collected and catalogued 23,361 pieces of plastic.
The research from these operations also contributed to the banning of the use of plastic straws in Fortaleza. This is accompanied by an educational campaign which will change consumer behaviour in the region.
Instituto Verdeluz also sits on the management boards of six conservation units, through which they guarantee the protection of 9,281 hectares of marine and coastal areas.
Polycycle - Germany
Lena Kupijai, Anna Goldhofer, Julia Graf
Business for Social Good
Lena was a BMW Delegate at One Young World 2017. She had many ideas of how to revolutionise her company but soon realised that she needed to start with her direct area of responsibility – purchasing. She teamed up with two interior developers, Anna Goldhofer and Julia Graf.
This bottom-up initiative began in the short-term with increasing the use of recycled material from old fisher nets and industrial waste, as an alternative to crude oil. Polycycle managed to implement recycled materials in the carpet of two million future BMWs.
The next development they have driven is towards not only improving the creation of plastic-fibre car mats, but to remove the negative environmental consequences of their disposal. The mats are made of composites which are very difficult to separate and therefore normally burned. With help from BMW Accelerator and suppliers, the team has developed new floor mats, consisting of materials, that are 100% recyclable.The vision is to make new floor mats out of old floor mats.
This simple but effective innovation not only decreases the footprint of floor mats, but it also led to other circular economy projects and inspired many colleagues to act likewise. Therein lies the benefit Lena, Anna and Julia see in working within big business, as the smallest chances can end up having a significant impact.